||Developed in Athens by Kleisthenes and others.|
||Based on principle that all citizens of the city-state of Athens had right
to attend and speak at assembly (women, slaves & metics were not
|Most government officials chosen by lottery, did job for 1 year.|
|From 390 BC, citizens paid for attending assembly.|
|Most important political posts were the 10 generals: elected by the assembly each year.|
|Between 30,000 - 40,000 male citizens but possibly only about 5000 attended assembly.|
|Voting was by a show of hands.
|Ostracism (banishment from Athens) involved writing a person's name on an ostraca; person with most votes over 6000 had to leave Athens for 10 years, which destroyed their career.|
In fourth century BC, heyday of Greek democracy.
Cities like Chios and Thebes (previously oligarchies) adopted a version of democratic government.
||Common throughout ancient Greece|
|Sparta championed oligarchies.|
|Athens had an oligarchy during and after the Peloponnesian War.|
|Existed in Corinth and Thebes.|
||A minority of men from rich families controlled the state: most citizens
couldn't take part in government.
||Many states, particularly in the 6th century BC, were ruled by a tyrant.|
||Took power by force.|
|Usually of noble birth but often had support of the poor.|
|Unlike a monarchy, power not inherited|
|Unlike modern meaning of tyranny, was not always a brutal and oppressive rule e.g. Pisistratus' rule in Athens.|
||First appeared in Argos or Corinth, then Sicyon, Megara, Mytilene and
|Sparta avoided tyranny, probably because of the need for unity amongst citizens against helots.|
|In Athens, Pisistratus became tyrant 3 times, starting c.560 BC.|
|In Corinth under the Kypselidai tyranny, the city became dominant in pottery production and export, art and trade.|